Accordion Fold: A method of folding in which each fold opens in the opposite direction to its neighbor, giving a accordion or pleated effect.
Acid-free Paper: Paper made from pulp containing little or no acid so it resists deterioration from age. Also called alkaline paper, archival paper, neutral pH paper, permanent paper and thesis paper.
Against the Grain: At right angles to the grain direction of the paper being used, as compared to with the grain. Also called across the grain and cross grain. See also Grain Direction.
Alteration: Any change made by the customer after copy or artwork has been given to the service bureau, separator or printer. The change could be in copy, specifications or both. Also called AA, author alteration and customer alteration.
Aqueous Coating: Coating in a water base and applied like ink by a printing press to protect and enhance the printing underneath.
Archival Inks: Inks used in fine art reproduction that have been optimized for permanence.
Archiving: Printed jobs are archived, often on backup tapes or hard drives, for a specified period. Information necessary to reproduce the job is also archived, including rasterized pages, imposition, fonts, images and layout.
Artwork: All original copy, including type, photos and illustrations, intended for printing. Also called art.
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Back Up: To print on the second side of a sheet already printed on one side.
Bind: Usually in the book arena, but not exclusively, the joining of leafs or signatures together with either wire, glue or other means.
Bindery: Usually a department within a printing company responsible for collating, folding and trimming various printing projects.
Bitmap: A grid of pixels or printed dots generated by computer to represent type and images.
Bleed: Printing that extends to the edge of a sheet or page after trimming.
Blind Emboss: To emboss without added ink or foil the embossed image.
Blind Image: Image debossed, embossed or stamped, but not printed with ink or foil.
Bond Paper: Category of paper commonly used for writing, printing and photocopying. Also called business paper, communication paper, correspondence paper and writing paper.
Book Paper: Category of paper suitable for books, magazines, catalogs, advertising and general printing needs. Book paper is divided into uncoated paper (also called offset paper), coated paper (also called art paper, enamel paper, gloss paper and slick paper) and text paper.
Brightness: Characteristic of paper referring to how much light it reflects.
Bristol Paper: General term referring to paper 6 points or thicker with basis weight between 90# and 200# (200-500 gsm). Used for products such as index cards, file folders and displays.
Buyout: Subcontracted service.
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C1S and C2S: Abbreviations for coated one side and coated two sides.
Camera-ready: An antiquated term, used today to refer to a finished computer file prepared for reproduction according to the technical requirements of the printing process being used. Such a file requires the minimum prepress time to process.
Carbonless Paper (NCR): Paper coated with chemicals that enable transfer of images from one sheet to another with pressure from writing or typing.
Chipboard: Inexpensive, single-ply cardboard, usually brown or gray.
CMYK: Abbreviation for cyan, magenta, yellow and key (black), the four process colors.
Coated Paper: Paper with a coating of clay and other substances that improves reflectivity and ink holdout. Mills produce coated paper in the four major categories cast, gloss, dull and matte.
Collate: To organize printed matter in a specific order as requested.
Color Cast: Unwanted color affecting an entire image or portion of an image.
Color Bar: Strip of small blocks of color on a proof or press sheet to help evaluate features such as density and dot gain.
Color Correct: To adjust the relationship among the process colors to achieve desirable colors.
Color Gamut: The entire range of hues possible to reproduce using a specific device, such as a computer screen, or system, such as four-color process printing. Colors reproducible in one gamut (for instance, your computer monitor) may not be reproducible in another gamut (such as four-color process printing).
Color Management: An advanced technology that uses profiles of the input and output devices to maximize color accuracy. Targets that include over 3,000 colors are printed and measured with a colorimeter to create profiles for the various ink/media combinations.
Color Separation: (1) Technique of using a computer to divide continuous-tone color images into four halftone images. (2) The product resulting from color separating and subsequent four-color process printing. Also called separation.
Color Shift: Change in image color resulting from changes in register, ink densities or dot gain during four-color process printing.
Comb Bind: To bind by inserting the teeth of a flexible plastic comb through holes punched along the edge of a stack of paper. Also called plastic bind and GBC bind (a brand name).
Commercial Printer: Printer producing a wide range of products such as announcements, brochures, posters, booklets, stationery, business forms, books and magazines. Also called job printer because each job is different.
Composite Proof: Proof of color separations in position with graphics and type. Also called final proof or imposition proof.
Contrast: The degree of tones in an image ranging from highlight to shadow.
Cover Paper: Category of thick paper used for products such as posters, menus, folders and covers of paperback books.
Coverage: Extent to which ink covers the surface of a substrate. Ink coverage is usually expressed as light, medium or heavy.
Creep: Phenomenon of middle pages of a folded signature extending slightly beyond outside pages. Also called feathering, outpush, push out and thrust. See also Shingling.
Crop Marks: Lines near the edges of an image indicating portions to be reproduced. Also called cut marks and tic marks.
Crossover: Type or art that continues from one page of a book or magazine across the gutter to the opposite page. Also called bridge, gutter bleed and gutter jump.
Cure: To dry inks, varnishes or other coatings after printing to ensure good adhesion and prevent setoff.
Cutting Die: Usually a custom ordered item to trim specific and unusual sized printing projects.
Cyan: One of the four process colors, the "C" in CMYK. Also known as process blue.
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Deboss: To press an image into paper so it lies below the surface.
Deckle Edge: Edge of paper left ragged as it comes from the papermaking machine instead of being cleanly cut. Also called feather edge.
Density: (1) Regarding ink, the relative thickness of a layer of printed ink. (2) Regarding color, the relative ability of a color to absorb light reflected from it or block light passing through it. (3) Regarding paper, the relative tightness or looseness of fibers.
Desktop Publishing: Technique of using a computer to design images and pages, and assemble type and graphics, then using a laser printer or RIP to output the assembled pages onto paper or printing plate. Abbreviated DTP.
Die: Device for cutting, scoring, stamping, embossing and debossing.
Die Cut: To cut irregular shapes in paper or paperboard using a die.
Digital Printing: Any type of print reproduction method that utilizes electronic files to produce a printed piece from spots and dots of ink, toner, or dye. Applying it to the print workflow has eliminated most of the manual steps involved with conventional print processes.
Digital Proofing: Page proofs produced through electronic memory transferred onto paper via laser or ink-jet.
Dot Gain: Phenomenon of halftone dots printing larger on paper than they are on plates, reducing detail and lowering contrast. Also called dot growth, dot spread and press gain.
Dot Size: Relative size of halftone dots as compared to dots of the screen ruling being used. There is no unit of measurement to express dot size. Dots are too large, too small or correct only in comparison to what the viewer finds attractive.
Dots-per-inch: Measure of resolution of input devices such as scanners, display devices such as monitors, and output devices such as laser printers, computer-to-plate devices and monitors. Abbreviated DPI. Also called dot pitch.
DPI: Considered as "dots per square inch," a measure of output resolution in relationship to printers, computer-to-plate devices and monitors.
Drill: In the printing arena, to drill a whole in a printed matter.
Dry Back: Phenomenon of printed ink colors becoming less dense as the ink dries.
Dull Finish: Flat (not glossy) finish on coated paper; slightly smoother than matte. Also called suede finish, velour finish and velvet finish.
Dummy: Simulation of the final product. Also called mock-up.
Duotone: Black-and-white photograph reproduced using two halftone negatives, each emphasizing different tonal values in the original.
Duplex Paper: Thick paper made by pasting together two thinner sheets, usually of different colors. Also called double-faced paper and two-tone paper.
Duplicator: Offset press made for quick printing.
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Emboss: To press an image into paper so it lies above the surface. Also called cameo and tool.
Encapsulated PostScript file (EPS): Computer file containing both images and PostScript commands.
Engraving: Printing method using a plate, also called a die, with an image cut into its surface.
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Face: (1) Edge of a bound publication opposite the spine. Also called foredge. (2) An abbreviation for typeface referring to a family of a general style.
Felt Finish: Soft woven pattern in text paper.
Fifth Color: Ink color used in addition to the four needed by four-color process.
Film Laminate: Thin sheet of plastic bonded to a printed product for protection or increased gloss.
Finish: (1) Surface characteristics of paper. (2) General term for trimming, folding, binding and all other post press operations.
Finished Size: Size of product after production is completed, as compared to flat size. Also called trimmed size.
Flat Color: (1) Any color created by printing only one ink, as compared to a color created by printing four-color process. Also called block color and spot color. Spot color is indicated by the Pantone Matching System (PMS) number. (2) Color that seems weak or lifeless.
Flat Size: Size of product after printing and trimming, but before folding, as compared to finished size.
Flood: To print a sheet completely with an ink or varnish. Flooding with ink is also called painting the sheet.
Foam Core: Foam core or Foam board is a very strong, lightweight and easily cut material used for the mounting of posters and photographic prints. It consists of three layers: an inner layer of polystyrene foam clad with outer facing of a clay coated paper. Available in 1/8", 3/16" or 1/2" thicknesses.
Foil Stamp: Method of printing that releases foil from its backing when stamped with the heated die. Also called block print, hot foil stamp and stamp.
Foldout: Gatefold sheet bound into a publication, often used for a map or chart. Also called gatefold and pullout.
Fold Marks: With printed matter, markings indicating where a fold is to occur, usually located at the top edges.
Fonts: Typefaces in different styles that give documents personality.
For Position Only: Refers to inexpensive copies of photos or art used on mechanical to indicate placement and scaling, but not intended for reproduction. Abbreviated FPO.
Form: Each side of a Signature (see Signature).
Four-color Process Printing: Technique of printing that uses cyan, magenta, yellow and black (CMYK) translucent inks to simulate full-color images by overlaying halftone dots. Also called color process printing and full color printing.
French Fold: A printed sheet, printed one side only, folded with two right angle folds to form a four page uncut section.
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Gang: To reproduce two or more different printed products simultaneously on one sheet of paper during one press run. Also called combination run.
Gate Fold: A sheet that folds where both sides fold toward the gutter in overlapping layers.
Gatorfoam®: Heavy-duty foam board that is light weight, rigid and warp resistant. Strongest foam board available. Dense polystyrene foam core has solid wood-fiber veneer for added strength.
Gloss: Consider the light reflecting on various objects in the printing industry (e.g., paper, ink, laminates, UV coating, varnish).
Ghosting: (1) Phenomenon of a faint image appearing on a printed sheet where it was not intended to appear. Chemical ghosting refers to the transfer of the faint image from the front of one sheet to the back of another sheet. Mechanical ghosting refers to the faint image appearing as a repeat of an image on the same side of the sheet. (2) Phenomenon of printed image appearing too light because of ink starvation.
Grain Direction: Predominant direction in which fibers in paper become aligned during manufacturing. Also called machine direction. Important consideration when a paper is folded.
Grand Format: Typically refers to a minimum print width of 98". Better attributed to print widths of 126" plus.
Graphic Design: Arrangement of type and visual elements along with specifications for paper, ink colors and printing processes that, when combined, convey a visual message.
Graphics: Visual elements that supplement type to make printed messages more clear or interesting.
Grayscale: Grayscale is a range of monochromatic shades from black to white. Therefore, a grayscale image contains only shades of gray and no color. Most image file formats support a minimum of 8-bit grayscale, which provides 2^8 or 256 levels of gray.
Gripper Edge: Edge of a sheet held by grippers on a sheetfed press, thus going first through the press. Also called feeding edge and leading edge.
Gutter: In the book arena, the inside margins toward the back or the binding edges.
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Halftone: Halftone is the reprographic technique that simulates continuous tone imagery through the use of dots, varying either in size or in spacing. This process results in an optical illusion of the tiny dots being blended into smooth tones by the human eye. "Halftone" can also be used to refer specifically to the image that is produced by this process.
Head-to-tail: Imposition with heads (tops) of pages facing tails (bottoms) of other pages.
Hem: Sewing a cut edge of banner material so as to prevent it from unraveling.
Hickey: Spot or imperfection in printing, most visible in areas of heavy ink coverage, caused by dirt on the plate or blanket. Also called bulls eye and fish eye.
Hook and Loop: Technical term for "Velcro".
House Sheet: Paper kept in stock by a printer and suitable for a variety of printing jobs. Also called floor sheet.
Hue: A specific color name such as yellow or green.
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Image Area: The actual area on the printed matter that is not restricted to ink coverage.
Image Resolution: The number of pixels (dots) contained in a digital image. Standard resolution for printed images is 300 pixels per inch.
Imposition: Arrangement of pages or flats so they will appear in proper sequence after press sheets are cut, collated, folded and/or bound.
Impression: (1) Referring to an ink color, one impression equals one press sheet passing once through a printing unit. (2) Referring to speed of a press, one impression equals one press sheet passing once through the press.
Imprint: To print new copy on a previously printed sheet, such as imprinting an employee's name on business cards.
Ink Jet Printing: Method of printing by spraying droplets of ink through computer-controlled nozzles. Also called jet printing.
Inserts: Within a publication, an additional item positioned into the publication loose (not bound in).
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Job Number: A number assigned to a specific printing project in a printing company for use in tracking and historical record keeping.
Job Ticket: Form used by service bureaus, separators and printers to specify production schedule of a job and the materials it needs. Also called docket, production order and work order.
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K: Abbreviation for "key" color, always black in four-color process printing. Hence the 'K' in CMYK.
Keylines: Lines on a proof showing the exact size, shape and location of photographs or other graphic elements. Also called holding lines.
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Laid Finish: Finish on bond or text paper on which grids of parallel lines simulate the surface of handmade paper. Laid lines are close together and run against the grain; chain lines are farther apart and run with the grain.
Laminate: A thin transparent plastic sheet applied to usually a thick stock (covers, post cards, etc.) providing protection against liquid and heavy use, and usually accents existing color, providing a glossy (or lens) effect.
Landscape: Artist style in which width is greater than height. (Portrait is opposite.)
Laser Bond: Bond paper made especially smooth and dry to run well through laser printers.
Layout: A sample of the original providing (showing) position of printed work (direction, instructions) needed and desired.
Leading: Amount of space between lines of type.
Leaf: One sheet of paper in a publication. Each side of a leaf is one page.
Letter fold: Two folds creating three panels that allow a sheet of letterhead to fit a business envelope.
Letter Paper: In North America, 8 1/2' x 11' sheets. In Europe, A4 sheets.
Letterpress: Method of printing from raised surfaces, either metal type or plates whose surfaces have been etched away from image areas. Used for foiling, embossing, etc.
Line Screen: Degree of resolution of a halftone image based on the number of lines-per-inch (lpi) used to create the halftone. Standard line screens for offset printing are 133, 150 and 175.
Lithography: Method of printing using plates whose image areas attract ink and whose nonimage areas repel ink. Nonimage areas may be coated with water to repel the oily ink or may have a surface, such as silicon, that repels ink.
Linen Finish: Embossed finish on text paper that simulates the pattern of linen cloth.
Live Area: Area on a mechanical within which images will print. Also called safe area.
Logo (Logotype): A company, partnership or corporate creation (design) that denotes a unique entity. A possible combination of letters and art work to create a "sole" entity symbol of that specific unit.
Looseleaf: Binding method allowing insertion and removal of pages in a publication (i.e.: 3-hole drill binder).
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Magenta: One of the four process colors, the "M" in CMYK.
Makeready : (1) All activities required to prepare a press or other machine to function for a specific printing or bindery job, as compared to production run. Also called setup. (2) Paper used in the makeready process at any stage in production. Makeready paper is part of waste or spoilage.
Margin: Imprinted space around the edge of the printed material.
Mark-Up: Instructions written usually on a "dummy".
Matte Finish: Flat (not glossy) finish on photographic paper or coated printing paper.
Metallic Ink: Ink containing powdered metal or pigments that simulate metal.
Mil 1/1000 Inch: The thickness of plastic films as printing substrates are expressed in mils.
Mock Up: A reproduction of the original printed matter and possibly containing instructions or direction.
Moire: Undesirable pattern resulting when halftones and screen tints are made with improperly aligned screens, or when a pattern in a photo, such as a plaid, interfaces with a halftone dot pattern.
Monarch: Paper size (7' x 10') and envelope shape often used for personal stationery.
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Natural Color: Very light brown color of paper. May also be called antique, cream, ivory, off-white or mellow white.
NCR (Carbonless Paper): Paper coated with chemicals that enable transfer of images from one sheet to another with pressure from writing or typing.
Novelty Printing: Printing on products such as coasters, pencils, balloons, golf balls, etc., known as advertising specialties, premiums or promotional items.
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Offset Paper: Paper with a certain degree of porosity as a result of coating with an alkali-swelling resin; used for offset printing.
Offset Printing: Printing technique that transfers ink from a plate to a blanket to paper instead of directly from plate to paper.
Opacity: (1) Characteristic of paper or other substrate that prevents printing on one side from showing through the other side. (2) Characteristic of ink that prevents the substrate from showing through.
Overprint: To print one image over a previously printed image, such as printing type over a screen tint. Also called surprint.
Over Run: Additional printed matter beyond order. Overage policy varies in the printing industry.
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Page: One side of a leaf in a publication.
Page Count: Total number of pages that a publication has.
Pagination: In the book arena, the numbering of pages.
Painted Sheet: Sheet printed with ink edge to edge, as compared to spot color. The painted sheet refers to the final product, not the press sheet, and means that 100 percent coverage results from bleeds off all four sides.
Paper Plate: A printing plate made of strong and durable paper in the short run offset arena (cost effective with short runs).
Panel: One page of a brochure, such as one panel of a rack brochure. One panel is on one side of the paper. A letter-folded sheet has six panels, not three.
Parallel Fold: Method of folding. Two parallel folds to a sheet will produce 6 panels.
Parent Sheet: Any sheet larger than 11' x 17' or A3.
PDQ: Your single source print solutions provider. The best resource for fast turns and exceptional service.
Perfect Bind: To bind sheets that have been ground at the spine and are held to the cover by glue. Also called adhesive bind, cut-back bind, glue bind, paper bind, patent bind, perfecting bind, soft bind and soft cover.
Perf Marks: On a "dummy" marking where the perforation is to occur.
Perforating: Taking place on a press or a binder machine, creating a line of small dotted wholes for the purpose of tearing-off a part of a printed matter (usually straight lines, vertical or horizontal).
Pixel: Short for picture element, a dot made by a computer, scanner or other digital device.
Plate: Piece of paper, metal, plastic or rubber carrying an image to be reproduced using a printing press.
Pleasing Color: Color that the customer considers satisfactory even though it may not precisely match original samples, scenes or objects.
PMS: Reference to Pantone Matching System. The correct trade name of the colors in the Pantone Matching System is Pantone colors, not PMS Colors. These colors are numbered, and used for calling out specific spot ink colors or process ink combinations.
Point: (1) Regarding paper, a unit of thickness equating 1/1000 inch. (2) Regarding type, a unit of measure equaling 1/12 pica and .013875 inch (.351mm).
Pole Pocket: Pocket formed on banners to capture a pole usually for mounting or hanging purposes.
Portrait: An art design in which the height is greater than the width. (Opposite of Landscape.)
Post Bind: To bind using a screw and post inserted through a hole in a pile of loose sheets.
Prepress: Step between the creation of the artwork layout and the actual printing. In a digital shop prepress is entirely electronic. The Prepress technician checks the layout for errors, adjusts art as needed to reflect color and or finishing requirements and generates the final soft-proof to be checked by the originator. Prepress also makes the final press proof and plates the job for printing.
Prepress Proof: Any color proof made using ink jet, toner, dyes or overlays, as compared to a press proof printed using ink. Also called dry proof and off-press proof.
Preprint: To print portions of sheets that will be used for later imprinting.
Press Check: Event at which makeready sheets from the press are examined before authorizing full production to begin.
Press Proof: Proof made on press using the plates, ink and paper specified for the job.
Press Time: (1) Amount of time that one printing job spends on press, including time required for makeready. (2) Time of day at which a printing job goes on press.
Price Break: Quantity at which unit cost of paper or printing drops.
Printer Spreads: Mechanicals made so they are imposed for printing, as compared to reader spreads.
Printing: Any process that transfers to paper or another substrate an image from an original such as a film negative or positive, electronic memory, stencil, die or plate.
Printing Plate: Surface carrying an image to be printed. Quick printing uses paper or plastic plates; letterpress, engraving and commercial lithography use metal plates; flexography uses rubber or soft plastic plates. Gravure printing uses a cylinder. The screen printing is also called a plate.
Process Color (Inks): The colors used for four-color process printing: cyan, magenta, yellow and black (CMYK).
Production Run: Press run intended to manufacture products as specified, as compared to makeready.
Proof: Test sheet made to reveal errors or flaws, predict results on press and record how a printing job is intended to appear when finished.
PSA: "Pressure Sensitive Adhesive", an adhesive that bonds to the application substrate with pressure meaning that no further activator is required such as heat or a solvent.
PSV: "Pressure Sensitive Vinyl", vinyl that has a pressure sensitive adhesive back. There are many materials available under the broad heading of "pressure sensitive vinyl" such as those used for wrapping vehicles, wall graphics, floor graphics, window graphics and adhesive laminates.
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Quality: Subjective term relating to expectations by the customer, printer and other professionals associated with a printing job and whether the job meets those expectations.
Quick Printing: Printing using small sheetfed presses, called duplicators, using cut sizes of bond and offset paper.
Quotation: Price offered by a printer to produce a specific job.
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Rag Paper: Stationery or other forms of stock having a strong percentage content of "cotton rags."
Raster Image Processor (RIP): Device that translates page description commands into bitmapped information for an output device such as a laser printer or imagesetter.
Reader Spread: Mechanicals made in two page spreads as readers would see the pages, as compared to printers spread.
Ream: 500 sheets of paper.
Recycled Paper: New paper made entirely or in part from old paper.
Register: To place printing properly with regard to the edges of paper and other printing on the same sheet. Such printing is said to be in register.
Register Marks: Cross-hair lines on proofs and plates that help keep printing in register. Also called crossmarks and position marks.
Resolution: Quality/sharpness of an image on film, paper or computer screen, usually 300 pixels per inch for printing.
Reverse: Type, graphic or illustration reproduced by printing ink around its outline, thus allowing the underlying color or paper to show through and form the image. The image 'reverses out' of the ink color. Also called knockout and liftout.
RGB: Abbreviation for red, green, blue, the additive color primaries.
Rule: Line used as a graphic element to separate or organize copy.
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Saddle Stitch: To bind by stapling sheets together where they fold at the spine, as compared to side stitch. Also called pamphlet stitch, saddle wire and stitch bind.
Satin Finish: Alternate term for dull finish on coated paper.
Scale: To identify the percent by which photographs or art should be enlarged or reduced to achieve, the correct size for printing.
Scanner: Electronic device used to scan an image.
Score: To compress paper along a straight line so it folds more easily and accurately. Also called crease.
Screen Density: Refers to the percentage of ink coverage that a screen tint allows to print. Also called screen percentage.
Screen Printing: Method of printing by using a squeegee to force ink through an assembly of mesh fabric and a stencil.
Screen Ruling: Number of rows or lines of dots per inch or centimeter in a screen for making a screen tint or halftone. Also called line count, ruling, screen frequency, screen size and screen value.
Self Cover: Usually in the book arena, a publication not having a cover stock. A publication only using text stock throughout.
Self Mailer: A printed item independent of an envelope. A printed item capable of travel in the mailing arena independently.
Separations: In the four-color process arena, separate images or plates holding images of one specific color per piece, as in Cyan, Magenta, Yellow and Black. Can also separate specific Pantone colors or varnishes.
Sheetfed Press: Press that prints sheets of paper, as compared to a web press.
Sheetwise: Technique of printing one side of a sheet with one set of plates, then the other side of the sheet with a set of different plates. Also called work and back.
Shingling: Allowance, made during prepress imposition, to compensate for creep. Creep is the problem; shingling is the solution. Also called stair stepping and progressive margins.
Side stitch: To bind by stapling through sheets along, one edge, as compared to saddle stitch. Also called cleat stitch and side wire.
Signature: (1) Printed sheet folded at least once, possibly many times, to become part of a book, magazine or other publication. (2) In a digital workflow, the imposition and printing marks making up the press sheet for final printing.
Slip Sheets: Separate sheets (stock) independent from the original run positioned between the "printed run" for a variety of reasons.
Solid: Any area of the sheet receiving 100 percent ink coverage, as compared to a screen tint.
Soy-based Inks: Inks using vegetable oils instead of petroleum products as pigment vehicles, thus are easier on the environment.
Spine: Back or binding edge of a publication.
Spiral Bind: To bind using a spiral of continuous wire or plastic looped through holes. Also called coil bind.
Split Run: (1) Different images, such as advertisements, printed in different editions of a publication. (2) Printing of a book that has some copies bound one way and other copies bound another way.
Spoilage: Paper that, due to mistakes or accidents, must be thrown away instead of delivered printed to the customer, as compared to waste.
Spot Color Varnish: One ink or varnish applied to portions of a sheet, as compared to flood or painted sheet.
Spread: (1) Two pages that face each other and are designed as one visual or production unit. (2) Technique of slightly enlarging the size of an image to accomplish a hairline trap with another image. Also called fatty.
Standard Viewing Conditions: Background of 60 percent neutral gray and light that measures 5000 degrees Kelvin the color of daylight on a bright day. Also called lighting standards.
Stocking Paper: Popular sizes, weights and colors of papers available for prompt delivery from a merchant's warehouse.
Substrate: Any surface or material on which printing is done.
Subtractive Color: Color produced by light reflected from a surface, as compared to additive color. Subtractive color includes hues in color photos and colors created by inks on paper.
Surprint: Taking an already printed matter and re-printing again on the same.
SWOP: Abbreviation for specifications for web offset publications, specifications recommended for web printing of publications.
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Tabloid: 11x17 paper dimensions.
Tag: Grade of dense, strong paper used for products such as badges and file folders.
Tagged Image File Format (TIFF): Computer file format used to store images from scanners and video devices. Abbreviated TIFF.
Target Ink Densities: Densities of the four process inks as recommended for various printing processes and grades of paper. See also Total Area Coverage.
Template: Concerning a printing project's basic details in regard to its dimensions. A standard layout.
Text Paper: Designation for printing papers with textured surfaces such as laid or linen. Some mills also use 'text' to refer to any paper they consider top-of-the-line, whether or not its surface has a texture.
Thermography: Method of printing using colorless resin powder that takes on the color of underlying ink. Also called raised printing.
Tint: Screening or adding white to a solid color for results of lightening that specific color.
Total Area Coverage: Total of the dot percentages of the process colors in the final film. Abbreviated for TAC. Also called density of tone, maximum density, shadow saturation, total dot density and total ink coverage.
Trapping: The process of creating an overlap between abutting colors to compensate for imprecisions in the printing press.
Trim Size: The size of the printed material in its finished stage (e.g., the finished trim size is 5 1\2 x 8 1\2).
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Uncoated Paper: Paper that has not been coated with clay. Also called offset paper.
Undercolor Removal: Technique of making color separations such that the amount of cyan, magenta and yellow ink is reduced in midtone and shadow areas while the amount of black is increased. Abbreviated UCR.
Universal Copyright Convention (UCC): A system to protect unique work from reproducing without knowledge from the originator. To qualify, one must register their work and publish a (c) indicating registration.
Unsharp Masking: Technique of adjusting dot size to make a halftone or separation appear sharper (in better focus) than the original photo or the first proof. Also called edge enhancement and peaking.
Up: Term to indicate multiple copies of one image printed in one impression on a single sheet. "Two up" or "three up" means printing the identical piece twice or three times on each sheet.
UV Coating: Liquid applied to a printed sheet, then bonded and cured with ultraviolet light.
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Variable Data: Where one or more element is changed given that all other design aspects remain the same in a multi-unit print run. For example, a personalized letter, a sponsor change on light pole banners or a price change for different regions of a national product campaign.
Varnish: Liquid applied as a coating for protection and appearance.
Vellum Finish: Somewhat rough, toothy finish.
Viewing Booth: Small area or room with special lighting that is set up for proper viewing of PMS swatches or press sheets. Also called color booth. See also Standard Viewing Conditions.
Vignette: Decorative design or illustration fade to white.
Vignette Halftone: Halftone whose background gradually and smoothly fades away. Also called degrade.
Vinyl: Catch all term for the many and varied PVC substrates used as media for banners, displays, wall graphics, etc. Available in many weights and configurations, the most common being 10oz and 12-13oz supported PVC banner material.
Vinyl Mesh: Also referred to as scrim vinyl or fence wrap. Vinyl mesh is available in many weights and % of open area. Because of the open areas in mesh it is normally nearly half the weight of a standard vinyl laminate. It lends itself well to projects which weight and lowered wind resistance is an issue such as stage backdrops, building wraps and fence wraps at events and for construction developments.
Virgin Paper: Paper made exclusively of pulp from trees or cotton, as compared to recycled paper.
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Wash Up: To clean ink and fountain solutions from rollers, fountains, screens, and other press components.
Waste: Unusable paper or paper damage during normal makeready, printing or binding operations, as compared to spoilage.
Watermark: Translucent logo in paper created during manufacturing by slight embossing from a dandy roll while paper is still approximately 90 percent water.
Web Break: Split of the paper as it travels through a web press, causing operators to rethread the press.
Web Gain: Unacceptable stretching of paper as it passes through the press.
Web Press: Press that prints from rolls of paper, usually cutting it into sheets after printing. Also called reel-fed press. Web presses come in many sizes, the most common being mini, half, three quarter (also called 8-pages) and full (also called 16-pages).
Wide Format Digital Printing: Traditionally a term referring to printers capable of printing a minimum of 24" wide material.
Window: (1) In a printed product, a die-cut hole revealing an image on the sheet behind it. (2) On a mechanical, an area that has been marked for placement of a piece of artwork.
With the Grain: Parallel to the grain direction of the paper being used, as compared to against the grain. See also Grain Direction.
Work and Turn: Refers to a printing imposition where one side of the sheet of paper is printed, then the paper is turned over, keeping a common gripper, to print the other side. Uses the same plate or set of plates to print each side.
Wove: Paper manufactured without visible wire marks, usually a fine textured paper.
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Yellow: One of the four process colors, the "Y" in CMYK.
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